Welcome to Forest Data Bank.

Tree stand
Community of trees growing in a given, interacting, homogeneous in terms of natural and economic features, its structure, age and the relationship with the site conditions, established as a result of a renewal treatment – naturl (self-seeding) or artificial. The tree stand is the basic unit of forest inventory and planning.

Tree stand in restocking class
Mature and overmature stands subject to both use and renewal (under the tree shelter), in which at least 50% of the area (in the stands harvested by group shelter method at least 30%) was naturally or artificially restocked, and stands of younger age classes requiring reconstruction by complex cutting methods due to bad productive results.

Tree stand in class for restocking
Mature and overmature stands utilized by complex felling (cutting) methods, requiring prior restocking as the necessary condition for the continuity of cutting by these methods.

Tree stands in all-aged structure
Stands consisting of groups and clumps of trees of different ages and heights, permeating each other over the entire surface but at the same time subject to forest use procedures, forest renewal and tending.

Pre-mature stands
Stands which are not ready for felling due to insufficient sizes of trees. Usually it lacks 20-40 years to reach the age of felling maturity.

Mature stands
Stands which can be intended for felling due to the age and size of trees (already reached felling maturity or will reach it within 10-20 years).

Small-size wood – smallwood
Roundwood with the diameter at the thinner end of up to 5 cm (measured without bark), measured in single logs, in group of logs and stacks.

Admixture species
Tree species, whose share in the stand species composition accounts for 10-30%.

Dominant species
Tree species with the largest share in the stand species composition. In case there are two species with similar share in the tree stand, this species is co-dominant.

Primary species
Tree species with greatest future importance in a stand, regardless whether it is primary or admixture.

Statistical unit
Aggregated data to the level of forest division categorized according to forest habitat type, natural and forest region and administrative division up to the level of commune and forestry division to the level of forest districts ( when one of forest divisions outside the SF will have geometrical separations located in other forest districts should be considered as a special case).

Stump with roots, taken out of the ground, intended for usable timber or fuelwood.

Stand index class
The indicator of the productive capacity of forest habitat and stand (Forest Act, Art. 6, paragraph 1, item 2) determining potential productive capacity of forest habitat for a given species. The stand index class is determined separately for the basic forest-forming species on the basis of the age and height of stand. In Poland, the stand index class are numberd with roman numerals from I to V (for pine Ia, I, II, III, IV, V).

Stand age class
Contractual period, usually 20-year, allowing collective grouping of stands according to their age. The average age of each stand is determined on the basis of the age calculated (estimated) for several dominant trees of a given species. In forest practice the concept of age classes and subclasses has been introduced, and the following designation have been adopted:
 Age class I includes:
  subclass Ia - 1-10 years
  subclass Ib - 11-20 years
 Age class II includes:
  subclass IIa - 21-30 years
  subclass IIb - 31-40 years
 Age class III includes:
  subclass IIIa - 41-50 years
  subclass IIIb - 51-60 years
 Age class IV includes:
  subclass IVa - 61-70 years
  subclass IVb - 71-80 years
 Age class V includes:
  subclass Va - 81-90 years
  subclass Vb - 91-100 years.
 In stands older than 100 years the division into subclasses is not applicable, namely:
  Class VI - the age of 101-120 years,
  Class VII - the age of 121-140 years, and so on.

Stand volume
Total volume of all trees in the stand.

Stand description
Description of forests and areas intended for afforestation, as of 1 January in the first effective year of the management plan, including:

  • exact forest stand location (both forest address and administration), agricultural land type and its area,
  • description of forest habitat including information about the area, the soil, soil cover and and undergrowth,
  • forest functions and management objectives: forest stand type (economic or protective, with regard to the forest function) and the age of stand’s felling maturity,
  • description of forest with figures on its characteristic features, (average tree sizes, stand index, volume of merchantable timber and volume increment),
  • planned economic activities.

The State Forest National Forest Holding
The state organisational unit without legal personality, existing since 1930, administering forests owned by the State Treasury (without national parks, resources of agricultural property owned by the Treasury and subject to perpetual usufruct). Within the framework of this management the State Forests practice silviculture and administers lands and other real estate related to forest management. Forests managed by the State Forests take more than 78% of all forests in Poland, about 25% of the country area.

Irregularly stocked open stand
Areas planted with trees in age class II (21-40 years) of tree cover up to 0.3 inclusive, or trees in class III and higher (over 40 years) of tree cover up to 0.2 inclusive.

Second-growth forest
Young generation of forest originating from natural or artificial regeneration, more than 0.5 m high.

Stand species composition
The share of tree species forming a stand, determined with 10% accuracy, expressed in arabic numerals next to the abbreviated name of the species (genus), e.g. 6P, 4OK - represents 60% of pine and 40% of the oak in the stand.

State Forests Information System
Computer system of management support in the State Forests NFH, which comprises five closely integrated sub-systems: forest, production management, human resources, finance and accounting, infrastructure. SILP is an information technology tool dealing with complex economic processes and their integrated approach, coherently showing the state of management at all levels: forestry unit, forest district, institute, SF regional directorate, SF General-Directorate.

Sustainable forest management
Activities aimed at shaping and using forests in such a way and pace which preserves their biological richness, high productivity and regeneration potentil, citality and the capacity to fulfill now and so in the future, all important protective, economic and social functions at local, national and global level, without bringing harm to other ecosystems (Forest Act, Art. 6, paragraph1 (1a)).

Second-growth of forest/forest plantation
Young forest in the early years of its life - from sprouting to reaching canopy closure (the touching of tree crowns).

Simplified Forest Management Plan
Plan developed for the forest area of at least 10 hectares and constituting a dense forest complex, containing a brief description of forest and the areas intended for afforestation as well as basic tasks related to the forest management; prepared for forests not owned by the State Treasury.

Separation of trees/Stand natural selection
Natural process of dying of the weakest trees in a tree stand, which leads to gradual reduction of their number in the stand.

Forest area separated during forest inventory, homogenous on the habitat basis or forest survey items. The comaprtment allows special management treatment for the separated forest units.

Stocking (stocking index)
A level of land coverage by woody plants which is determined in stands aged up to 20 years. In older stands this index is calculated by comparing actual wood mass (timber volume) of individual genus occurring on one hectare of a forest area, to the possible average value provided in the standing volume tables presenting the same tree stand, at the same age and in the same habitat but in perfect conditions for growth.

Standing volume
Tree stand volume expressed in cubic metres of merchantable timber, or merchantable timber and smallwood, per one hectare (m3/ha). One of the most important item in the forest survey determined during forest survey works, having basic significance while planning the forest management practice framework. As a mean value calculated e.g. per a particular forest district area it becomes an indicator of the productive capacity of the forest district’s stands.

Soil fertility
The group of physical, chemical and biological soil properties which provide growing conditions to plants (natural ability to provide for plants’ needs).